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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-15

Laparoscopy and anesthesia: A clinical review


Department of Anaesthesiology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Ramyavel Thangavelu
Department of Anaesthesiology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Ganapathichettikulam, Kalapet, Puducherry
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/SJL.SJL_3_18

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Laparoscopy has evolved since as early as 1950 to the present state of being the standard approach for most common surgical procedures. It has gained popularity in clinical practice in view of better cosmetics, lesser postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, and faster recovery. However, the creation of pneumoperitoneum with laparoscopy is associated with various pathophysiological changes, especially involving the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Electronic databases were searched to obtain the relevant literature with keywords related to laparoscopy from 1985 to 2016. Ninety-three papers were reviewed. Bibliographies were cross-checked and relevant literature was included. The pneumoperitoneum associated with laparoscopy is found to cause a decrease in cardiac output with an increase in pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance. These changes are mainly due to the increase in abdominal pressure which causes elevation of diaphragm with compression of small and big blood vessels. In the lungs, it causes a decrease in functional residual capacity with impaired pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. Increase in intra-abdominal pressure also perils the splanchnic circulation with a decrease in blood flow to the major abdominal organs. Preoperative assessment requires special attention, especially in high-risk patients. General anesthesia with controlled ventilation has proven to the ideal technique. Various pharmacological agents are used with varying success to attenuate the hemodynamic responses to laparoscopy. This article discusses the various consequences of laparoscopy as well as strategies to counteract them. It is essential for the anesthesiologists to have a good understanding of these changes and intervene at appropriate levels in terms of optimization in the preoperative period and management of hemodynamic changes in the perioperative period for a good surgical and patient outcome.


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